The Kingdom of Mauretania was an ancient Berber kingdom located in North Africa, spanning modern-day Algeria and Morocco. Established in the 3rd century BCE, it became a Roman client state under King Juba II in the 1st century BCE, before full Roman annexation in 40 CE.

Formation of the Kingdom of Mauretania

Before the Kingdom

Prior to the establishment of the Kingdom of Mauretania, the region was predominantly inhabited by the Berber community. Historical insights, particularly from architectural remnants, have illuminated our understanding of the Tichitt tradition. This tradition revolves around archaeological evidence from roughly 400 settlements discovered near Tichitt, which have been traced back to a period between 2,000 BCE and 200 BCE. Initially, these settlements thrived on millet cultivation, but as the local climate grew drier, such practices were eventually phased out.

a captivating digital artwork that transports viewers to the ancient settlement of Dhar Tichitt. The scene should showcase the layered structure of the settlement, with distinct levels of hamlets, villages, district centers, and regional centers. Illustrate the interconnectedness of the community, with pathways and roads linking these different areas. Capture the architectural style of the dwellings, characterized by walled compounds that housed the inhabitants. Show the expansiveness of the living quarters, with areas outside the walls thought to have been used for livestock or gardens. Convey a sense of vibrancy and activity as viewers observe people going about their daily lives, engaging in various tasks such as farming, tending to livestock, or socializing. Use warm and earthy tones to evoke the desert environment and the rich history of the site. Let the artwork transport viewers back in time, allowing them to glimpse the intricate social structure and the harmonious coexistence of human settlement with nature at Dhar Tichitt.

The hallmark of the Tichitt tradition is the presence of distinctive dry stonewalls, with similar structures identified as far afield as Guilemsi. Interestingly, recent excavations in Guilemsi have unveiled monuments bearing a striking resemblance to those near Tichitt, which appear to have funerary significance. Furthermore, numerous rock art depictions of various animals suggest a rich tradition of animal husbandry in the region, long before the rise of the Kingdom of Mauretania.

Formation of the Kingdom of Mauretania

Let’s delve a bit deeper into Mauretania’s rich past. Among the first to inhabit Mauretania were the people of the Capsian culture. Hailing from the region between the Red Sea and the Nubian Nile, these Afro-Asiatic speakers journeyed westward around 9000 BCE, navigating the vast stretches of the northern Sahara. Initially living as hunter-gatherers, they shifted gears by 7000 BCE, embracing the domestication of animals like cattle, sheep, and goats. By the 6th millennium BCE, they had firmly established themselves in Mauretania, not just as herders, but also as cultivators of crops such as wheat and olives.

For a vivid and immersive digital visualization in a 16:9 aspect ratio, envision the bustling life of the 6th millennium BCE in the Kingdom of  Mauretania. As the sun casts a golden hue over the vast landscape, groups of people are engaged in various activities that define their livelihood. Herders guide their flocks across gentle rolling hills, while nearby fields come alive with the verdant green of wheat and olive crops. Men and women, clad in ancient attire, work diligently to cultivate and harvest, their faces etched with determination and pride.

Now, as we transition to the span between the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE, the proto-Berbers started making their mark across North Africa, bringing with them significant linguistic and cultural shifts. Central to the story of Mauretania during classical times were the Mauri, a cluster of Berber tribes residing to the north of the Sahara. An interesting tidbit: the term “Mauri” may have its roots in a Punic term that translates to “westerner.” These tribes shared their eastern boundaries with the Masaesyli and Massylii from Numidia. As time evolved, the region we now recognise as everything west of Numidia and above the Sahara was termed “Mauretania.”

The Mauri societal structure was quite intricate, with clans overseen by respective chieftains. While a segment of the Mauri led a pastoral life, roaming and trading products like wool and leather, others gravitated towards more permanent settlements, particularly in the country’s northern coastal plains. A significant milestone arrived in the 4th century BCE when these tribes coalesced to form a federation. This union paved the way for the Kingdom of Mauretania, governed by a succession of monarchs. It’s noteworthy that even amidst such political progression, local chieftains retained pivotal roles. And it’s worth mentioning that by the concluding years of the 3rd century BCE, prominence of the Kingdom of Mauretania rivalled that of Numidia.

Kings of the Kingdom of Mauretania

King Bagas of Mauretania, a 3rd-century ruler, wielded remarkable diplomatic and military skills. Famed for expansion through alliances and conquests, his legacy profoundly influenced North African history.

In the annals of history, King Bagas’s name emerged during the tumultuous times of the Second Punic war. Faced with the dilemma of either traversing through the land of the Massaesylians, his fierce adversaries, or through the Mauretanian territory, Masinissa opted for the latter. This strategic choice led him to receive aid from King Bagas, who furnished him with a force of 4,000 Moorish cavalrymen. This contingent remained loyal to Masinissa until he reached the boundaries of his homeland. Furthermore, King Bagas’s military prowess was evident when he extended his support in the concluding stages of the Second Punic War, particularly in battles against the renowned general, Hannibal.

Renowned historian Gabriel Camps noted that such acts of military support and alliance indicate that Bagas was far from a mere ceremonial monarch. He possessed substantial influence, managing expansive lands and resources stretching from the Atlantic shores to the Mulucha River, possibly identified as today’s Moulouya River in Morocco, and extending from the Mediterranean coast deep into the southern regions beyond the Atlas Mountains.

The mantle of leadership post Bagas was assumed by Bocchus I, believed to be either his direct descendant or perhaps his grandson.

King Bocchus I of Mauretania, a 1st-century BC ruler, adeptly navigated political complexities by allying with Rome and Numidia. His reign brought stability, expanded territories, and exemplified astute diplomacy.

However, at a turning point in 105 BCE, Bocchus switched his allegiance and handed Jugurtha to the Romans. This act led to Jugurtha’s imprisonment in Rome and a subsequent division of his Numidian kingdom between Rome and Bocchus.

Life Details

There’s a shroud of mystery around the life of Bocchus I and the dynamics of his Mauretanian realm. It’s speculated that he might have been the offspring or perhaps the grandson of King Baga, who was contemporaneous with King Massinissa of the adjacent Numidian kingdom.

His dominion in North Africa stretched between the Atlantic waters and the Moulouya River, known in Latin as Mulucha. The Roman historian Sallust, in his recounting of the Jugurthine War, stated:

To the Romans, King Bocchus, ruling all of the Moors, was almost an enigma, known only by name, until he entered our annals either in peacetime or conflict.

— C. Sallustius Crispus, Bellum Iugurthinum, Chapter 19

Based on Sallust’s writings, Bocchus, adhering to tradition, had multiple wives. Four of his children are recognized: an unnamed daughter who married Jugurtha, his heir apparent Sosus (also known as Mastanesosus), and two sons named Bogud and Volux.

The Jugurthine War Narrative

Circa 108 BCE, the friction between Rome and Numidia intensified. While Bocchus initially maintained neutrality, a tempting offer from Jugurtha — a third of his kingdom — pulled him into an alliance. Unfortunately, this alliance met its match at the Second Battle of Cirta in 106 BCE, where they were bested by Gaius Marius.

As the conflict extended and Jugurtha eluded Roman forces, Bocchus’ allegiance wavered. He sought counsel from Sulla, an up-and-coming Roman quaestor. Envoys from Mauretania were then dispatched to Rome. While the Roman Senate seemed receptive, they demanded proof of Bocchus’ fidelity. Consequently, in a planned deception, Bocchus lured Jugurtha and handed him to Sulla.

Following these events, Bocchus and the Roman Empire carved up Numidia. Though Marius was celebrated for the victory, Sulla cherished a gold ring gifted by King Bocchus, symbolizing the pivotal moment when Jugurtha was turned over.

King Bocchus had an intriguing role: he supplied Rome with unique African wildlife, such as panthers and lions, for their grand spectacles.


Following Bocchus’ reign, his son Mastanesosus took the throne. He passed on the kingdom to his children, Bocchus II and Bogud. The brothers, ruling different parts of the Kingdom of Mauretania, found themselves on opposing sides during Roman civil strife. Eventually, Bocchus II claimed the entirety of the kingdom. His passing in 33 BCE led to the Kingdom of Mauretania becoming a vassal state of Rome.

King Mastanesosus of Mauretania, a lesser-known monarch, ruled in the 1st century AD. His reign, marked by cultural patronage and internal development, contributed to the kingdom’s heritage despite receiving limited historical attention.

Historians, such as Stéphane Gsell, have at times mistakenly identified Mastanesosus with Massinissa II from Numidia. However, both archaeological findings and Cicero’s mention provide a fairly convincing argument that after Bocchus I’s reign and before the leadership of Bogud and Bocchus II, a monarch named Sosus had indeed governed the Kingdom of Mauretania. This theory was also proposed by American archaeologist Duane W. Roller.

Adding to this evidence, a fascinating discovery was made in 2020: a sling-bullet inscribed with the Latin words “Rex Sos”, translating to “King Sos”. It’s conceivable that this artefact originated from a skirmish involving the forces of Sosus or perhaps was commissioned in his honour.

King Bogud of Mauretania, a prominent ruler in the 2nd century BC, displayed adept leadership by forging strategic alliances with Rome. His reign brought stability and prosperity, leaving an enduring legacy in the history of the kingdom.

Journey to the Tropics

Bogud had an adventurous spirit. He once embarked on an expedition along the Atlantic coast, possibly reaching the tropical regions. Upon his return, he gifted his wife, Eunoë, with massive reeds and asparagus he had discovered during his explorations.

Aligning with Caesar

Both Bogud and his counterpart Bocchus aligned themselves with the iconic Roman general, Julius Caesar, during Caesar’s civil war in Africa (49-45 BC). Gnaeus Pompey, trying to cut down support for Caesar, launched an attack on Bogud’s lands. However, Pompey’s attempts backfired, leading to Bogud intensifying his efforts against Pompey’s supporters. Caesar, recognizing Bogud’s determination, sent P. Sitius to support him in opposing King Juba I of Numidia, an ally to the Pompeians. This resulted in Bogud capturing Cirta and Juba I retreating.

Subsequently, after Caesar’s triumph over Metellus Scipio’s Pompeian forces at the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC, Bocchus was rewarded with vast territories previously owned by Juba. Bogud also played a crucial role in the Battle of Munda, executing a strategic attack that shattered Pompeian lines.

Uprising in Spain against Caesar’s Rule

Under Quintus Cassius Longinus’s leadership in Hispania Ulterior, unrest began to simmer against Caesar’s rule, which had always been contentious in Spain. When Cassius sought reinforcements, Bogud was ready to help. But then Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, acting on Caesar’s directive, stepped in to mediate. He did manage to bring some order, but after an unexpected assault by Bogud’s troops was repelled, Cassius had to step down. Bogud then retreated to Mauretania.

Choosing Sides After Caesar

Post Caesar’s assassination in 44 BC, the rulers of the Kingdom of Mauretania found themselves divided in their allegiances. Bogud threw his support behind Mark Antony, while Bocchus sided with Octavian, the future Emperor Augustus. In a twist of fate, around 38 BC, Bocchus claimed Bogud’s land when Bogud was away on a campaign in Spain. This forced Bogud to seek refuge with Antony. Bocchus then, with Octavian’s blessing, became the sole sovereign of the Kingdom of Mauretania. Unfortunately, Bogud met his end during the clashes at Methone, part of Antony’s Actium campaign. Later, Bocchus II, in a grand gesture, bequeathed the Kingdom of Mauretania to Octavian in 33 BC.

King Bocchus II of Mauretania, a significant monarch in the 1st century AD, played a crucial role in maintaining regional stability. Through diplomatic acumen and alliances, he upheld the kingdom’s interests amidst changing political tides, leaving a lasting impact on its history.

Tracing His Lineage

Without a doubt, Bocchus II was the progeny of King Mastanesosus of the Kingdom of Mauretania. A testament to this is the Latin inscriptions on coins which detail his lineage as “King Bocchus son of Sosus”. From historical records, notably the De Bello Africo, we understand that the realm once ruled by Bocchus I and Sosus was divided between Bocchus II and Bogud, both siblings. Bocchus II presided over Mauretania’s eastern territories, setting his capital at Iol, while his brother Bogud governed the west with Volubilis as his administrative heart. Not much is known about Bocchus II’s reign, but the highlights include interactions with Sittius, his campaign against Juba I and the Pompeians, and the incorporation of Western Mauretania into his territory. The Caesarean Senate acknowledged him as king in 49 BC. But what remains uncertain is when he began his reign and the exact timeline of his alliance with Caesar against the Pompeians and their partner, King Juba I of Numidia.

Acquisition of Numidia

During the Roman civil discord from 49-45 BC, Bocchus, hand in hand with Sittius, led an assault on Numidia. They dethroned Massinissa II with ease and swiftly claimed Cirta, Juba I’s capital. This move essentially deterred Juba I from siding with Metellus Scipio against Caesar. While Bocchus halted his offensive there, Sittius marched on, capturing key figures and even intercepting a ship of Metellus Scipio. Caesar, grateful for Bocchus’s support, later granted him territories that previously belonged to Masinissa II, Juba’s confederate. This extended Mauretania’s reach up to Ampsaga. The coastal regions north of Cirta and Juba’s territories were handed to Sittius.

Consolidating Power and His Passing

Historian Dio Cassius mentions that Bocchus dispatched his offspring to back Sextus Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud sided with Caesar. After Caesar’s demise, Bocchus rallied behind Octavian, and Bogud aligned with Antony.

Seizing the moment during Bogud’s stint in Spain, Bocchus II annexed the entirety of the Kingdom of Mauretania, receiving the official nod from Octavian as its sole monarch. This move enabled him to oversee a Mauretanian realm even grander than what Bocchus I and Sosus once controlled. His life’s journey ended in 33 BC, leaving no successors. In a noble gesture, he bequeathed his dominion to Augustus. After a brief direct rule, Augustus in 25 BC passed the reins to Juba II, Juba I’s offspring. Later on, parts of Numidia were integrated into the Roman Empire, while the expanded Mauretanian kingdom persisted as a Roman vassal state. It stayed this way under Juba II and subsequently his heir, Ptolemy of the Kingdom of Mauretania, until Claudius’s reign, when it was finally assimilated into the Roman Empire.

King Juba II of Mauretania, a 1st-century AD ruler, was renowned for promoting Hellenistic culture in his kingdom. His scholarly pursuits, architectural projects, and ties with Rome left an indelible mark on Mauretania’s history, showcasing a rich legacy of intellectual and political achievements.

Early Years

Born in Numidia, Juba II was of Berber descent. As the sole child of King Juba I of Numidia, his lineage is a matter of much intrigue, with him even asserting a connection to General Hannibal. His childhood saw tumultuous times; his father was defeated by the mighty Julius Caesar in Thapsus (46 BC). Numidia eventually succumbed to Roman rule in 40 BC, with Juba I having been allied with the renowned Roman General Pompey.

Juba II’s exact age during Caesar’s triumphant moment in 46 BC is debated. Some scholars posit he was four or six years old, but his biographer, Duane Roller, disputes this. Roller’s argument hinges on the Greek term “brephos,” denoting an infant, used in reference to Juba. According to this line of thought, Juba would’ve been between 2 months to 2 years old during the triumph, placing his birth year between 48 and 46 BC.

Under the wings of Julius Caesar, Juba II was introduced to the grandeur of Rome, immersing himself in its languages, Latin and Greek, and even securing Roman citizenship. Such was his dedication that, by 20, he authored “Roman Archaeology.” Nurtured by Caesar and later by Octavian (the future Emperor Augustus), he didn’t just stay in the shadows; he joined Octavian in crucial military campaigns, including the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.

Returning to the Numidian Throne

Octavian, in 30 BC, reinstated Juba II to the Numidian throne. Juba II, being the astute leader he was, fortified Numidia’s alliance with Rome. His notable contributions to Augustus during the Hispania campaign were rewarded with a royal match; he was united in matrimony with Cleopatra Selene II, who was also crowned queen. Under his reign, the map of Numidia changed, with a major part being annexed to the Roman Empire in 25 BC. However, as a gesture of goodwill, Juba II was gifted the rule of Mauretania, inclusive of Western Numidia territories.

Leading the Kingdom of Mauretania

Strabo notes that after Bocchus II, the previous Mauretanian king and a friend to Rome, passed away, the Romans took direct control of the Kingdom of Mauretania. But by 25 BC, Augustus entrusted this kingdom to Juba II. Shifting their base, Juba II and Cleopatra Selene named their capital Caesaria (now known as Cherchell in modern-day Algeria), a tribute to Augustus. The grandeur of Caesaria and Volubilis reflects a harmonious blend of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman design principles.

In the Kingdom of Mauretania, Cleopatra’s wisdom often influenced Juba II’s decisions. As a patron of arts and sciences, he elevated Mauretanian culture to new heights. Mauretania’s strategic importance to the Roman Empire cannot be understated. With a flourishing trade network spanning the Mediterranean, goods like fish, grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden artefacts, and the coveted purple dye (extracted from certain shellfish) were exported. In a noteworthy endeavour, Juba II even sought to revive the ancient Phoenician dyeing technique. Under his leadership, cities like Tingis (present-day Tangier) thrived as trade hubs. His contributions were acknowledged in Gades and Carthago Nova, where he held honorary positions.

The Mauretanian currency under Juba II was held in high esteem. Plutarch, the revered Greek historian, lauded him as one of the era’s most visionary leaders. His travels with Gaius Caesar, Augustus’s grandson, further expanded his influence. By AD 21, Juba II introduced his son, Ptolemy, as co-ruler. Juba II’s journey came to an end in AD 23, and he was laid to rest beside his beloved Cleopatra in the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania. Thereafter, Ptolemy assumed the Mauretanian throne.

King Ptolemy of Mauretania, a notable ruler of the 1st century AD, fostered a flourishing kingdom through alliances with Rome. His rule exemplified political astuteness and cultural patronage, contributing to Mauretania’s prominence in the ancient world.


Born to King Juba II and Queen Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemy’s exact date of birth remains elusive but is believed to have been before his mother’s death in 5 BC. He had a possibly younger sister, whose name is not known but may have been Drusilla.

His lineage was rich; his father hailed from the line of King Juba I of Numidia, an ally of the Roman Triumvir Pompey and associated with North Africa’s Berbers. On the other hand, his mother was the offspring of the renowned Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony, making Ptolemy a mix of Berber, Greek, and Roman heritage. Notably, Ptolemy and his sister were the only children of their parents to grow into adulthood.

Born in Caesaria (modern-day Cherchell, Algeria), Ptolemy was named to honour his mother’s lineage, particularly the Ptolemaic dynasty, showcasing her intent to maintain this legacy. His name also paid tribute to Cleopatra VII, highlighting a maternal influence in naming traditions.

Ptolemy received his education in Rome, thanks to the Roman citizenship he inherited from his parents. In Rome, he was part of his maternal aunt Antonia Minor’s influential circle, which played pivotal roles in preserving the Roman Empire’s political boundaries. He stayed in Rome until he was 21, after which he joined his father in Mauretania.


Upon his return, King Juba II anointed Ptolemy as co-sovereign and successor. Evidence of their joint rule survives in coinage which featured both their images. After Juba II’s death in 23 CE, Ptolemy became The Kingdom of Mauretania’s sole monarch.

Ptolemy was known for promoting art, literature, and sports, much like his father. The Athenians held him in high regard, as evidenced by inscriptions and statues dedicated to him.

However, his rule wasn’t without challenges. Around 17 CE, Berber tribes rebelled against Ptolemy’s rule and Rome. This revolt saw participation from Ptolemy’s former slaves. Despite efforts, the rebellion persisted, requiring Roman intervention, which finally subdued the revolt in 24 CE. In recognition of Ptolemy’s steadfast loyalty, a Roman senator awarded him tokens of appreciation.

Throughout his reign, Ptolemy showcased his allegiance to Rome and celebrated his heritage. Coins from his time bore a range of symbols, from elephants representing Africa to lions symbolizing royalty and the continent.

Aesthetically inclined, Ptolemy had a penchant for luxury. He possessed a custom-made citrus wood wine table, a popular luxury item of the time. In his personal life, he wed Julia Urania, a woman of uncertain origins, who bore him a daughter named Drusilla.


Under Ptolemy’s stewardship, the Kingdom of Mauretania prospered. However, his fate took a turn in 40 CE when he visited Rome. While he was warmly received by Caligula and reaffirmed as a king and ally, he was later assassinated on Caligula’s orders. The reasons behind this act remain speculative, ranging from jealousy over Ptolemy’s wealth to political motivations.

Post his assassination, Mauretania witnessed a revolt led by Aedemon, Ptolemy’s former slave. The rebellion, while fierce, was eventually quelled by Roman generals, leading to the division of Mauretania into Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis.

Trade & Urbanisation


The geographical positioning of the Kingdom of Mauretania facilitated commerce between the Mediterranean and the vast expanse of Saharan Africa. The Mauri, its inhabitants, engaged in trade exchanges, offering ivory, gemstones, and animal skins to the Phoenicians. In return, the Phoenicians had established bustling port cities, notably Tingis (known today as Tangier) and Lixus, along Mauretania’s coastline.

With the advent of Roman dominion, the ports witnessed remarkable development, and trade flourished, echoing the prosperous times of the Punic age. A majority of these trade goods found their way to Italy. Despite being a client state of the vast Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Mauretania enjoyed a unique economic autonomy, a privilege seldom seen among other client states.

For a captivating digital visualization in a 16:9 aspect ratio, transport the viewer to the Mediterranean shoreline of the Kingdom of Mauretania, a time before 400 BC. The coast bustles with activity as commercial harbours come alive, each pier laden with an assortment of goods waiting for trade. Mariners, merchants, and traders converse animatedly, their voices mixing with the call of seagulls overhead. In the horizon, ships adorned with sails approach, signaling incoming trade from the majestic city of Carthage. The atmosphere is electric, filled with the promise of commerce and cultural exchange.

Historically, even before 400 BC, the Mediterranean shoreline of the Kingdom of Mauretania boasted commercial harbours that facilitated trade interactions with the powerful city of Carthage. Meanwhile, the hinterlands of Mauretania were under the influence of Berber tribes, who not only traded extensively with Carthage but later also with the Romans.

Furthermore, the Mauri shared deep-rooted cultural and economic bonds with the Iberian region and maintained a strong association with the Phoenician stronghold of Cadiz. When they turned their gaze southward, the Mauri sourced exotic items such as ostrich eggs and amber from the Saharan tribes. Their trade also included the acquisition of gold, possibly originating from Spain or regions in West Africa.

Urbanisation of the Kingdom of Mauretania

Mauretania’s limited population meant that its urban development was not as swift as that of Numidia. Nevertheless, during this era, several towns and cities, such as Volubilis and Iol, took root in the Kingdom of Mauretania. After Carthage faced defeat in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE), its territories shrank, paving the way for the Kingdom of Mauretania to seize many ports that were once under Phoenician control, Tingis being a notable example. Some scholars believe that Phoenician interactions may have played a role in fostering the early urban evolution of Mauretania. Yet, the ancient annals of Mauretania aren’t extensively detailed, as mentions by Greek and Roman chroniclers were infrequent.

For an evocative digital representation in a 16:9 aspect ratio, bring to life the ancient kingdom of Mauretania during its peak of urbanisation. Streets are lined with newly erected structures--some simple residences, others ornate public buildings, and bustling marketplaces. Masons and artisans work diligently, constructing edifices while merchants tout their wares, showcasing goods from distant lands. Citizens converse animatedly, children play in the alleyways, and traders from distant regions marvel at the emerging city's beauty. In the distance, the silhouette of cranes and unfinished buildings highlights the city's rapid expansion. Infuse the atmosphere with a sense of wonder and progress, capturing the essence of a civilization on the cusp of greatness.

The monarchs of the Kingdom of Mauretania championed the urban transformation of their realm, drawing inspiration from the architectural prowess of the Roman Empire. King Juba stands out for his significant contributions to regional urbanization and for introducing advanced agricultural practices. The tranquillity post the First, Second, and Third Punic Wars provided The Kingdom of Mauretania with the perfect backdrop to channel its energies towards trade and economic growth. Furthermore, Mauretania’s allegiance to Rome, especially during times of conflict with Carthage and Numidia, earned them periods of tax leniency from the Roman administration.

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World History Encyclopedia. “Mauretania.” Accessed [26.08.23].

Think Africa. “Kingdom of Mauretania.” Accessed [26.08.23].

Wikipedia contributors. “Mauretania.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Last modified [13.08.23].